1907  Australian Annette Kellerman, performing in a glass tank, attracts national attention at the New York Hippodrome as the first underwater ballerina.

1915  Katherine Curtis, a student at the University of Wisconsin, experiments with diving actions and stunts in the water.

1923  Curtis starts a water-ballet club at the University of Chicago. The group executes strokes, "tricks" and floating formations.

1934  Sixty of Curtis' swimmers, called the Modern Mermaids, perform in the lagoon at the Century of Progress World's Fair in Chicago.

1939  The first U.S. competition, held May 27, is a dual meet at Wright Junior College between Wright and Curtis' team,the Chicago Teachers' College ... showman Billy Rose develops an Aquacade for the World's Fair in New York featuring Olympians Eleanor Holm and Johnny Weismeuller.

1940  Esther Williams, U.S. freestyle champion and Olympic contender, popularizes water ballet with her performances in the San Francisco World's Fair Aquacade and subsequent MGM movies ... the Central Association of the Amateur Athletic Association [AAU] begins competitions in synchronized swimming. The first CAAAU meet is held March 1, 1940 in Wilmette, Ill.

1941  The Amateur Athletic Union [AAU] adopts synchronized swimming as an official competitive sport for duet and team events ... Clark Leach of the CAAAU is the first chairman.

1942  A Trial National Championship for Teams is held Aug. 14-16 in Neenah, Wisconsin ... of the three participating Chicago clubs, Lakeshore Athletic Club wins.

1946  The first Official National Team Championship is held Aug. 11 at Riis Park in Chicago ... the duet event is held Sept. 8 in Hinsdale, Ill. Chicago Town Club wins both competitions.

1950  The solo event is added to the program of events ... June Taylor of Ontario, Canada, wins the Indoor Solo title while Beulah Gundling of Cedar Rapids, Iowa wins the Outdoor Solo title.

1951  The U.S. and Canada demonstrate at the I Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1952  The U.S. And Canada demonstrate at the Olympic Games in Helsinki.

1954  FINA, the international aquatics federation, is formed .... FINA makes synchronized swimming a competitive division of aquatics.

1955  The II Pan American Games in Mexico City includes synchro as an official event for the first time. The U.S. sweeps all three events in its first-official international competition ... Beulah Gundling wins solo, Ellen Richard and Connie Todoroff win duet and the Athens Club of Oakland win the team event.

1956  The USA establishes the first Age Group rules and competition ... synchronized swimmers from Athens Club of Oakland, Calif., demonstrate at the Olympics in Melbourne, Australia.

1958  Stunt (figure) competition is added.

1959  The first Junior Olympic rules and program begin ... the U.S., represented by the Athens Club, and Canada demonstrate at the III Pan American Games in Chicago. Annette Kellerman and Katherine Curtis are inducted into Helms Hall of Fame.

1960  After a world tour, U.S. swimmers demonstrate at the Olympic Games in Rome.

1963  The U.S. wins gold in all events at the IV Pan American Games in Sao Paulo - Roberta Armstrong (solo), Barbara Burke and Joanne Schaak (duet), Athens Club team of Oakland (team).

1964  The U.S., represented by the San Francisco Merionettes, and Canada demonstrate at the Olympic Games in Saporo, Japan.

1967  Pam Morris is the first synchronized swimmer inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame ... the U.S., represented by the San Francisco Merionettes, and Canada demonstrate at the V Pan American Games in Winnipeg, Canada. Margo McGrath wins solo at the Golden Gate International Solo, the first international competition in the U.S.

1968  The U.S., represented by the Santa Clara Aquamaids, demonstrates at the Olympic Games in Mexico City.

1971  The first National Junior Olympic Championship is held in Norfolk, Va. The U.S. wins gold in all events at the VI Pan American Games in Cali, Colombia - Heidi O'Rourke (solo), O'Rourke and Joan Lang (duet), San Francisco Merionettes (team) ... O'Rourke and Lang receive perfect 10's for their duet routine.

1973  The first World Aquatic Championship is held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Led by Teresa Anderson, who wins four gold medals, the U.S. team sweeps all events and its gold medals push the U.S. aquatic team (swimming, diving, water polo and synchro) to the overall victory at the Championships.

1974  The first World Synchronized Swimming Conference is held in Ottawa, Canada ... American Kathy Kretschmer wins the World Solo Invitational competition held in conjunction with the conference. The U.S. sweeps gold at the first Pan Pacific Championship in Honolulu - Gail Johnson (solo) Johnson and Sue Baross (duet), Santa Clara Aquamaids (team).

1975  The first Masters National Championship is held in Reading, Pa. The U.S. wins gold in all events at the II World Aquatic Championships in Cali, Colombia, and at the VII Pan American Games, Mexico City - Gail Johnson (solo), Amanda Norrish and Robin Curren (duet), Santa Clara Aquamaids (team).

1977  AIAW Intercollegiate National Championships are held for the first time in Lansing, Mich. ... Ohio State University wins all events.

1978  The first National Sports Festival, organized by the USOC, is held in Pueblo, Colo. Synchronized swimmers are selected from the figures results of the previous National Championships ... 10 swimmers from each zone for the East, West, North and South teams. Congress passes the Amateur Sports Act mandating a new, independent structure for amateur sport in the United States. Santa Clara wins the team event at the III World Championships in Berlin.

1979  U.S. Synchronized Swimming Inc. [USSS] is established as the national governing body for the sport of synchronized swimming in the United States. Based on the success of the previous year's Sports Festival, the United States establishes its first national team ... Team USA wins the team event at VIII Pan American Games in San Juan, Puerto Rico and at the first World Cup in Tokyo.

1980  The first American Cup is held in Concord, Calif. The U.S. team wins all events - Linda Shelley (solo), Shelly and Suzanne Cameron (duet), Team USA (team) ... the International Olympic Committee [IOC] accepts the duet event for the 1984 Olympic Games.

1981  USSS establishes its national headquarters at the U.S. Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colo. ... Paula Oyer is hired as the first executive director.

1982  Tracie Ruiz wins solo at the World Aquatic Games in Guayaquil, Ecuador, while the U.S. takes silver in duet and team. Orlando, Fla., hosts the first ASUA [Pan American countries] Age Group competition in the U.S.

1983  Team USA performs before the IOC at the IOC meeting in Los Angeles ... the U.S. wins gold in all events at the II American Cup in Los Angeles. At the Pan American Games in Caracas, Venezuela, Tracie Ruiz wins solo, Ruiz and Candy Costie win duet, and Team USA wins silver. USSS relocates to Indianapolis to launch a nationwide grassroots development program funded by the Lilly Endowment.

1984  IOC officially accepts the solo event into the 1984 Olympic Games two months before the Games begin. Synchronized swimming premieres at the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. Tracie Ruiz and Candy Costie win the first Olympic medals in the duet event ... Ruiz captures an additional gold medal a day later in the solo event. Sarah Josephson, alternate, is sixth in figures. The three athletes are coached by Charlotte Davis ... Olympic Manager is Gail Emery. Ruiz and Costie attain their first "perfect" International Routine score at the Rome Open II in Rome. USSS adopts a Coaches Certification Program and hires a full-time national coach, Charlotte Davis, to oversee national team programs.

1985  II FINA World Cup is held in America (Indianapolis) for the first time ... Team USA wins silver medals in all of the events.

1987  The United States captures all events at the 1987 Pan American Games in Indianapolis - Tracie Ruiz (solo), Sarah and Karen Josephson (duet), Team USA (team). The U.S. also wins the team title at the III FINA World Cup.

1988  At the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul, Korea, U.S. Team members Tracie Ruiz-Conforto and Karen and Sarah Josephson win silver medals in the solo and duet competitions.

1989  The United States, for the first time since 1975, sweeps all events at the IV FINA World Cup in Paris - Tracy Long (solo), Long and Michelle Svitenko (duet), Team USA (team) ... the first FINA Junior World Championship is held in Cali, Columbia, with the U.S. team sweeping all events - Becky Dyroen (solo), Dyroen and Jill Sudduth (duet), USA's first National Junior Team (team).

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